Title : Effect of Structured Teaching Programme regarding Breast Self-Examination Among Adolescent Girls

 

Effect of Structured Teaching Programme regarding Breast Self-Examination Among Adolescent Girls of Selected College at Guwahati (Assam)

 

 

Abstract

 

A pre-experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme (STP) regarding breast self-examination among the adolescent girls of selected college of Narengi, Guwahati. A total of 35 students were selected using purposive sampling tech-nique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results revealed that the pretest mean was 8.2 which increased to 15 in the post-test and there is significant association between the knowledge and demographic variables such as age and religion. The study concludes that STP was significantly effective in increasing the knowledge regarding breast self-examination among the adolescent girls.

Breast self-examination (BSE) is an inexpen sive, risk-free method of screening used in an attempt to detect cancer which can be done at home. The best time to do breast self-exami-nation is about 3-5 days after the menstrual period starts when the breast tissue is no longer swollen or tender from hormone elevations. Even pregnant women can also check her breast on a monthly ba-sis but women of all ages are encouraged to perform breast self-examination at least once a month and to report to the health care provider about the changes immediately (Brunner & Siddharta). 

Performing breast self-examination every month, starting at the age of 20 years, is an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. Early detec-tion of breast cancer plays a leading role in reducing mortality rate and improving patient prognosis. 

In north eastern region incidence of breast can-cer is highest in Aizawl with 30 per lakh) population followed by Kamrup district (metro) 23 per lakh popu-lation. Cases of breast cancer patient at B Borooah Cancer Institute during the last few years were: 224 in 2008, 296 in 2009, 308 in 2010, 345 in 2011, and 311 in 2012 and 335 cases in 2013 (www.indian cancer.com) 

If the breast cancer is detected early and treated adequately, about 90 percent of them can be cured.But the irony is that still today about 70-80 percent reported to the doctor during the late stage. Small cancerous lump in the breast can be removed with-out removing the breast with very good survival chance by performing regular breast self-examina-tion. By 2020, 70 percent of the world’s cancer cases will be in poor countries with one-fifth in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research (2012) released an analysis of cancer cases among women in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore from 1982 to 2005, showing that until about 10 years ago, 10 per 100,000 women got breast cancer compared with 23 per 100,000 now.

A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding Breast self-examination among the ado-lescent girls at selected college, Narengi, Guwahati.

Objectives

 The objectives of the study were to:

  • Assess the pre-test and post-test knowledge re-garding breast self-examination among the ado-lescent girls of a selected college.
  • Determine the effectiveness of structured teach-ing programme on knowledge regarding breast self-examination.
  • Find out the association between pre­test knowl­ edge with the selected demographic variables.

Assumption

The study assumed that the adolescent girls may have inadequate knowledge regarding breast self-ex-amination.

Hypotheses

H1: The mean of post-knowledge score of adolescent girls regarding breast self-examination will be sig-nificantly higher than the mean of pre-test score. 

H2: There will be a significant association between pre-test knowledge and selected demographic vari-ables.

Review of Literature

Chattergee P conducted a study on knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among the GNM students. A structured and validated questionnaire and a pre-experimental, one group pre-test and post-test was used from selected college of Udupi district with the sample size of 40 students, using cluster sampling technique. The majority of samples were in an age group of 18-19 years. Only 35 percent of them heard about BSE and 85 percent of them par-ticipated at the time of study. The paired test was used in the study and 72.5 percent of the students had average knowledge I pre-test of BSE and 85 per-cent of them had good knowledge score in post-test.

Shalini, Divya Varghese, and Malathi Nayak con-ducted a study on the Awareness and Impact of Edu-cation on Breast Self-Examination Among College Going Girls. A pre-experimental one group pretest post-test design was carried out among 40 degree fe-male students by using cluster sampling method from selected colleges of Udupi district. The data analysis showed that majority (52%) of them were in the age group, of 18-19 years and 72 percent of them were had average knowledge on BSE in the pre-test score. Out of 40 participants only one student was performing BSE occasionally.

Methodology

The study involved an evaluative research approach with pre-experimental (one group pre-test post-test design with adolescent girls of selected college as the target population. Purposive sampling techniques were used with 35 samples.

 Validity and Reliability: Split half method was use to find the reliability of the struc-tured questionnaire.

 Data collection procedure: Pre-test was conducted by using structured questionnaire to assess the pre-test knowledge. Immediately after the pre-test, structured teaching programme regarding breast self-examination; was administered for 25-30 minutes. After 7 days post-test was conducted by using the same structured question-naire to reassess the knowledge.

Results and Discussion

In relation to the socio-demographic variables: Majority of the adolescent girls were in the age groups of 16-19 years (94.28%). Source of information revealed that most of them (65.71%) attained knowledge through books, in relation to religion, variables (88.57%) belongs to Hindu religion, (91.42%) were from nuclear family. 

In relation to knowledge regarding breast self-examination: The data revealed that out adolescent girls had moderate knowledge, 77 percent had inadequate knowledge in pre-test. In post-test, 80 percent had moderate knowledge and none had adequate knowledge. 

 

Figure l shows pre-test mean scores, post-test mean scores, which was found to be higher. Then, the paired t test was calculated to find out the significance of the difference (Table 1).

 

Conclusion

 

In this study, prior to implementation of STP, stu-dents had poor knowledge on breast self-examination; the effectiveness of STP was evaluated by evaluating the post-test knowledge scores. The mean score improved from 8.2 to 15 after the implementa-tion of STP, which shows the STP was effective. It is essential task of all women to do BSE and protect herself and her family. The nurse has to play an important role in health promotion and it is only pos-sible when she teaches or educates her client and community.

 

Implications and recommendations

 

  • Nurse administrators can plan and organise prac-tical educational approaches to teach the prac-tice of BSE.
  • The nurses can render services on BSE which can help women to be alert to any abnormal changes in their breasts and seek medical ad-vice immediately, if required.
  • The findings of the study give a base for BSE and can be replicated in a larger scale where the impact can be generalised.
  • On the lines of WHO, efforts on promoting aware-ness in the community about early diagnosis of breast cancer, Nurse Educators should educate women, nursing students and adolescent girls about BSE.

References

  • Brunner’s and Siddhartha’s: Text book of medical surgical nursing. 8th edn, Lippincott, pp 1296-97
  • http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2008/45/4/149/44662
  • Chatergee P. Effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge of GNM students regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination. The Nursing Journal of India 2002
  • Shalini, Varghese Divya, Nayak Malathi.  Awareness and impact of education on breast self-examination among col-lege going girls. Indian J Palliative Care 2011; May-Aug;
  •  

 

Authors: Khwairakpam Jenita1, Kalita Himakshi2, Pando Jennifer3, Thabah Jones Gracia3,

K Leishembi Chanu3, L Monika Devi3, L Romabati3, Marak Wegara3

 

The authors are: 1. Asst Professor; 2. Clinical Instructor; and 3. BSc (N) 4th year students, all at Sankar Madhab College of Nursing, Gandhi Nagar, Panikhaiti, Guwahati (Assam).

Source: TNAI Journal