Title : Synergistic Effect of Educational Media in Nursing Education

 

Synergistic Effect of Educational Media in Nursing Education

 

According to Mahatma Gandhi, education is an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man - body, mind and spirit. Nursing education refers to formal educational preparation for the nursing profession. It involves active teaching-learning process.

 

Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behaviour potential of another per-son (American Educational Research Association Commission). Learning is a process that results in the modification of behaviour (Travers).

Principles of Learning

 

  1. Readiness- Implies a degree of concentration and eagerness. Getting students ready to learn, creating interest and motivation is the responsibility of the teacher. Since learning is an active process, students must have adequate rest, health and physical ability.
  2. Exercise- This principle states that things most often repeated are best remembered. Practice leads to improvement only when it is followed by positive feedback.
  3. Effect- This principle is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It has a direct relationship to motivation. Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling. Positive reinforcement leads to successful learning.
  4. Primacy- It implies that things learned first create a strong impression in the mind that is difficult to erase. It means that what is taught must be right the first time. The student’s first experience should be positive, functional and lay the foundation for all that is to follow.
  5. Recency- This principle states that the things most recently learned are best remembered. The teacher repeats, restates or reemphasises important points at the end of a lesson for better retention of learning.
  6. Intensity- A sharp, clear, vivid, dramatic or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one. A student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute. Instructional aids and personal experience play important role in enhancing intensity of learn-ing.
  7. Freedom- It states that things freely learned are best learned. Learning should be free from compulsion and coercion.
  8. Requirement- This law states that ‘we must have something to obtain or do something.’ It can be an ability, skill, instrument or anything that may help us to learn or gain something.

Educational media enhance the teaching and learning process. They are used by the teacher to clarify, establish, correlate and coordinate concepts and in-terpretation accurately to make learning more con-crete, effective interesting, meaningful and vivid. Educational media, audio-visual aids, communication technology, educational or instructional media or learning resources are terms used interchange-ably and convey the same meaning and purpose (Sharma, et al, 2012).

Classification of Educational Media Projected Audiovisual Aids

Silent Projected aids: (a) Overhead Projector, (b) Epidiascope, (c) Slide Projector, (d) Film Projector.

Sound Projected aids: (a) Videos, (b) Motion pictures. Non-Projected Aids

Graphic aids: (a) Pictures (b) Charts (c) Maps (d) Dia-grams (e) Graphs (f) Puppets (g) Flash cards (h) Posters.

Display aids: (a) Chalkboard (b) Bulletin Board (c) Flan-nel Board (d) Magnetic Board.

Three-Dimensional aids: (a) Specimens, (b) Models, (c) Puppets, (d) Exhibition (e) Museum.

 Printed aids: (a) Pamphlets (b) Leaflets (c) Handouts Equipment Aids

 Audio aids: (a) Radio (b) Tape recorder (c) Public Ad-dress System.

Audio-visual aids: (a) Television (b) Camera (c) Mi-croscope (d) Computers.

 

Activity aids: (a) Computer- assisted instructions (b) Demonstrations (c) Drama (d) Programmed instruc-tion (e) Field trips (f) Projects (g) Experiments.

Quality of instructional delivery is an important determinant of the extent to which the teaching process has an impact on learning achievement. The literature identifies many contributors of learning achievement including teacher, curricula, teaching, student, home and school environments. Student’s learning achievement can be improved through quality teaching, even when other conditions such as class size are not conducive (Oketch M, et al 2014). Information and communication technology is useful on student’s performance (Ramcharan, 2006).

Rapid progress of information and communication technologies is considered as one of the key factors of change in humankind society. The main impact of these technologies in education can be seen in improving the capabilities of instructors, changing the educational structure, creating opportunities for greater and more comprehensive learning, enhanc-ing educational quality and improving teaching skills (Ahmadi S, et al 2011).

Educational media is imperative for nursing education and aims to influence the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning. Cognitive domain includes knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. It involves understanding, interpreting, remembering, analysing and evaluating information and facts. The teaching- learning methods used are lecture, discussion, conference, seminar etc. The affective domain relates to the feelings, emotions, interest and attitude of the learner. It includes receiving, responding, valuing, organisation, characterisation and concerns with the students’ general patterns of valuing and adjustment (personal, social and emotional), satisfaction, motivation. The teaching-learning strategies include simulation, role play, process recording etc. The psychomotor domain describes the skills or abilities for carrying out nursing activ-ity. It includes physical movement, coordination and use of motor skill areas (Simpson, 1972). It includes perception, set (readiness to act), guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation and organisation of developed skills. Teaching- learning strategies include demonstration, practice, simulation, clinical conference, project method, nursing rounds etc.

Nursing education depends a lot on educational media and technology. It is of utmost importance that the teachers of nursing effectively use teaching media to ensure an enriching experience for the learners influencing all the domains of educational objectives.

 

Audio-visual aids encourage the teaching learn-ing process and make it easier and interesting. They are the best tool for making teaching effec-tive and the best dissemination of knowledge. In a study by Rasul Bukhsh, et al (2011) to analyse the effectiveness of audio-visual aids in teaching learn-ing process at university level. Separate question-naires were administered to students and teach-ers and the data was analysed using SD and Z test. The authors concluded that audio-visual aids play an important role in teaching learning process and make it effective, provide knowledge in depth and detail, bring change in classroom environment, motivate teachers and students. They recom-mended that (a) teachers may be trained in using audio-visual aids (b) teachers need thorough plan-ning for the use of audio-visual aids (c) audio-vi-sual aids may be used according to the level and interest of students.

Comenius, J was one of the first educators to propose a systematic method of audio-visual education. Rousseau, Pestalozzi, et al, also advocated the use of sensory materials to supplement teaching. Erasmus discouraged memorisation as techniques of learning and advocated that children should learn through audio-visual aids. The term ‘visual education’ was used as early as 1926 by Green Eric (1967) identified four revolutions in education: education from home to school, written records as tool of education, inventions of printing and use of books and lastly the fourth revolution i.e. the use of electronic media like radio, television, tape recorder and computer in education.

Audio-visual aids become powerful tools when used by efficient instructor. Pictures succeed when words fail. However, such aids should not displace good text-books and teaching techniques (Dent E, 1946). Vi-sual aids are useful to help the audience better understand your topic if they are used as a supplement to and not a replacement for your presentation.

Audio-visual aids serve as an antidote to the disease of verbal instruction and help to reduce verbal-ism. They follow the maxims of teaching like ‘con-crete to abstract’, ‘known to unknown’ and ‘learning by doing’ (Selvi T, 2007). Cobun (1968) identified that of what is learned, 1 percent is from the sense of taste, 1.5 percent from touch, 3.5 percent from smell, 11 percent from hearing and 83 percent from sight. He stated that people generally remember 10 per-cent of what they read, 20 percent of what they hear, 30 percent of what they see, 50 percent of what they hear and see, 70 percent of what they say, 90 per-cent of what they say as they do a thing.

 

In a questionnaire based study on medical stu-dents, 90.1 percent respondents stated they were stimulated for further reading if they attend a lec-ture augmented by the use of visual aids. They pre-ferred a combination of audio-visual aids during a didactic lecture. The perception of diagrams, flow-charts and note-taking was best accepted with PowerPoint presentation, OHP etc. (Mohan Kumar, et al 2013).

The multimedia development that has taken place within the university classrooms in recent years has caused a revolution at psychological level within the collectivity of students and teachers inside and outside the classrooms. The slide show application have become a key supporting element for teachers, who in many cases, rely blindly in their use for teaching. Additionally, ill-conceived slides, poorly structured and with a vast amount of multimedia content can be the basis of a faulty communication between teacher and student, which is overwhelmed by the appearance and presentation neglecting their content (Negro, V, et al, 2013).

References

  1. Ahmadi et al. The Application of information and communi-cation technologies (ict) and its relationship with improvement in teaching and learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 2011; 28: 475-80
  2. Bukhsh et al. A study to analyze the effectiveness of audio-visual aids in teaching learning process at university level. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 2011; 28: 78-81
  3. Ellsworth C. The Audiovisual Handbook, Society for Visual Education,1946
  4. Kumar Mohan et al. Students’ views on audiovisual aids used during didactic lectures in a medical college. Asian Journal of Medical Science 2013; 4(2): 36-40
  5. Negro V et al. Use and abuse of audiovisual media in the college classroom-slides show and webpages. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 2013; 93(4): 190-94
  6. Oketch M et al. Does teaching style explain differences in learner achievement in low and high performing schools in Kenya? International Journal of Educational Development 2014; 36(2): 3-12
  7. Sharma S et al. Communication and Educational Tech-nology in Nursing. 1st edn, 2012: India, Elsevier, pp 294-303
  8. www.nursingempower.blogspot.in
  9. www. britannica.com
  10. www.boundless.com

Author : Feba Geevarghese

 

Author is Addl. Vice Principal at College of Nursing, St Stephen’s Hospital, Tiz Hazari, Delhi.

Source-TNAI Journal